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  • Compaction Density Of Residual Soils And Weathered

    Residual soils weathered rock and overburden quarry fill represent a significant amount of fill used in road embankments. These have a high stone content which affects both the bulk density and the accuracy of the quality tests associated with compaction control. Density is the parameter that one is most likely to have a good estimate.

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  • Porosity and Bulk Density of Sedimentary Rocks

     · grain density-bulk density relation. Hedberg (1926) and Athy (1930) determined the total porosity and bulk density of subsurface samples of shale with particular reference to the relation of compac­ tion to the thickness of overburden. Stearns (1927) determined the bulk density and total porosity of many samples of water-bearing rock.

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  • (PDF) COMPACTION DENSITY OF RESIDUAL SOILS AND

    At high levels of compaction of residual soils and weathered rock materials with heavy vibratory rollers when strength or modulus measurements are correlated back to density testing a poor

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  • Estimating Rock Mass StrengthBM 1997 02

     · ESTIMATING ROCK MASS STRENGTH USING compacted back to near in situ density and tested in a 152 mm diameter triaxial cell. Fresh to slightly weathered Panguna andesite. Samples taken from the open pit mine and compacted to near in situ density and then tested in a 571 mm diameter triaxial cell.

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  • Rock density and porosityPetroWiki

     · Eq. 8 is a fundamental relation used throughout the earth sciences to calculate rock density. Given a porosity and specific fluid density can be easily calculated if the mineral or grain density is known. Grain densities for common rock-forming minerals are shown in Table 2. The result of applying Eq. 9 is shown in Fig. 1.

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  • Densities of Typical Rock Types and Minerals

     · Densities of Typical Rock Types and Minerals Rock Type Range (g/cm3) Average (g/cm3) Sediments(wet) Overburden 1.92 Soil 1.22.4 1.92 Clay 1.632.6 2.21 Gravel 1.702.40 2.0 Sand 1.702.30 2.0 Sandstone 1.612.76 2.35 Shale 1.773.20 2.40 Limestone 1.932.90 2.55 Dolomite 2.282.90 2.70 Sedimentary

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  • Density of Shale solid in 285 units of density

    Shale solid weighs 2.675 gram per cubic centimeter or 2 675 kilogram per cubic meter i.e. density of shale solid is equal to 2 675 kg/m³. In Imperial or US customary measurement system the density is equal to 166.9948 pound per cubic foot lb/ft³ or 1.5462 ounce per cubic inch oz/inch³ . Density of Shale solid in a few select units

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  • CLASSIFICATION // CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME

     · Grey slightly weathered fine grained medium jointed hard dolerite rock. (Core loss and fracture filling suggest rock mass is highly weathered to spheroidal boulders. 50 boulders 50 matrix not recovered) The . secondary colourationof the rock. can be an indicator of the degree of weathering/alteration. It has

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  • Design Manual Engineering Properties of Soil and Rock

     · weak rock may lose strength with time when exposed in cuts. The geotechnical engineer is responsible for choosing design parameters representative of existing and future conditions. Determination of Soil and Rock Properties Subsurface soil or rock properties are generally determined using empirical correlations related to the

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  • Porosity production in weathered rock Where volumetric

    Porosity production in weathered rock Where volumetric strain dominates over chemical mass loss Here V is the volume and ρ b is the bulk density. Positive strain indicates dilation negative strain indicates contraction and ε = 1 (i.e. 100 strain) implies a

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  • Standard Weights for Crushed Rock Per Meter Hunker

    General Weights. Solid rock is estimated at 2.5 to 3tons per cubic meter. If rock is crushed into uniform sizes the presence of open space between the particles causes the load to be lighter -- approximately 1.6 tons per cubic meter. Mixed sizes of crushed rock can range from 1.6 to 2.2 tons per cubic meter.

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  • Soil and RockBulk Factors

     · Soil or rock from the borrow expands when dropped on the lorry or the landfillor stockpiled. One cubic from the borrow does not translate to one cubic dump. Bulking or swell factors for some materials Material. Density at the Borrow. 103. (kg/m3) Bulking (Swell) Factor.

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  • Quantifying Surface Roughness of Weathered Rock

     · classification of weathered rock for engineering purposes (Anon. 1995). Six laser scans were performed on granite fractures one on a fresh fracture three on slightly weathered fractures and two on highly weathered fractures. The analysis of the scans is shown graphically in

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  • GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF WEATHERED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

    GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF WEATHERED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. In the course of site investigation work for several large civil engineering projects in Singapore laboratory tests such as unconfined compression test point load test and slake durability test have been conducted on a large number of weathered sedimentary rock core samples.

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  • Large scale density gradation tests in compacted

    For plus 0.75 inch (19 mm) rock fragments containing some moisture (as in the case of weathered rock claystones wetted porous rock high absorption rock fragments etc.) air or oven drying of a representative50 lb (22.7 kg) minimum sample of plus 0.75 inch (19 mm) rock fragments is recommended for determining the overall moisture content and

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  • Hayward Fault Rocks Porosity Density and Strength

     · variability that two cores were tested and the numbers averaged. This rock had the lowest density at 2.25 gms/cc. At the other extreme was the fine-grained gabbro with a density of 3.05 gms/cc. Measured porosities follow the trend of density in most cases. Values ranged from 0.2 (fine-grained gabbro) to 13.5 (altered keratophyre). Many samples

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  • Strength properties of fresh and weathered rocks subjected

     · A decrease in rock density caused by W–D cycles was significantly smaller than what was observed in the naturally weathered rocks. This discrepancy was attributed to the mineral composition where the weathered rock exhibited higher peaks for clay minerals.

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  • Discussion on Completely weathered granite—soil or rock

    T. I. G amon writes The completely weathered granite studied by Howat (1985) represents a transitional stage in the weathering sequence between fresh granite and residual soil. It has been recommended that the term completely be superseded by the term extremely (Dearman 1984) as the weathering processs at this stage is far from complete.

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  • LABORATORY STUDY OF WEATHERED ROCK FOR

     · This research tries to establish the laboratory data for the rock material sampled during the ripping works. 1.2 Objective of Study The objectives of this research are i. To determine engineering characteristic of weathered rock mass related for ripping works. ii. To establish engineering parameter those are related to rock excavation.

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  • Chapter 4 Engineering Classification of Rock Materials

    Table 4–13 Fracture type 4–21 Table 4–14 Fracturing density description chart 4–21 Table 4–15 Joint set spacing categories 4–22 Table 4–16 Aperture category 4–23 Table 4–17 Joint infilling 4–24 Table 4–18 Joint persistence categories 4–25 Table 4–19 Types of joint ends 4–25 Table 4–20 Descriptors for weathering condition of joint face rock 4–27

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  • Porosity and Bulk Density of Sedimentary Rocks

     · grain density-bulk density relation. Hedberg (1926) and Athy (1930) determined the total porosity and bulk density of subsurface samples of shale with particular reference to the relation of compac­ tion to the thickness of overburden. Stearns (1927) determined the bulk density and total porosity of many samples of water-bearing rock.

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  • ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND ROCK MECHANICS

     · •Rock slopes form part of the components in many highway • or roadway constructions in hilly terrain. • The key question with regard to rock slopes along highways is their long- term stability since failure of a rock slope can have serious consequences. • The stability of a particular rock slope is • governed by three main engineering geologic factors

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  • The Density of Common Rocks and Minerals

     · The densities of rocks and minerals are normally expressed as specific gravity which is the density of the rock relative to the density of water. This isn t as complex as you may think because water s density is 1 gram per cubic centimeter or 1 g/cm 3. Therefore these numbers translate directly to g/cm 3 or tonnes per cubic meter (t/m 3).

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  • Chapter 4 Soil and Rock Classification and Logging

     · An important facet of soil and rock classification is the determination of what constitutes "rock" as opposed to extremely weathered partially cemented or altered material that approaches soil in its character and engineering characteristics. Extremely soft or decomposed rock that is friable (easily crumbled) and can be reduced to gravel

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  • Seismic velocity and rock properties

     · 7.2.4 Seismic velocity attenuation and rock properties • Rock properties that affect seismic velocity ¾ Porosity ¾ Lithification ¾ Pressure ¾ Fluid saturation • Velocity in unconsolidated near surface soils (the weathered layer) • Attenuation Seismic surveys yield maps of the distribution of seismic

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  • Seismic velocity and rock properties

     · -1- 7.2.4 Seismic velocity attenuation and rock properties Rock properties that affect seismic velocity Porosity Lithification Pressure Fluid saturation Velocity in unconsolidated near surface soils (the weathered layer) Attenuation Seismic surveys yield maps of the distribution of seismic velocities

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  • Porosity production in weathered rock Where volumetric

    Fig. 1 Conceptual model of variations in porosity strain and mass loss in a weathering profile.. From top to bottom The weathering profile (A) consists of the mobile soil layer (not resolved in our study) saprolite (which is weathered but retains the texture of underlying bedrock) fractured rock and fresh bedrock at depth mountain landscapes rock is exhumed through the weathering

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  • EFFECTS OF WEATHERING IN THE ROCK AND ROCK

     · THE ROCK AND ROCK MASS PROPERTIES AND THE INFLUENCE OF SALTS IN THE COASTAL ROADCUTS IN SAINT VINCENT AND DOMINICA XSA A. CABRIA March 2015 Highly weathered basalt in GU SV1A.. 37 Figure 9. Highly weathered

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  • PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK

     · The bulk density D is equal to (11) For rocks the bulk density varies between 2.5 and 3.0 g/cm3. Values for different rock types canbe found in Olhoeft and Johnson (1989). In general low density rocks are highly porous. Thedry density D other hand when the rock is saturated (S

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  • Porosities velocities and densities of rocksSEG Wiki

     · Histogram of rock densities (from Grant and West 1965). The histogram in Figure 5.3a does not encompass the complete range of samples and the range limits have been picked somewhat arbitrarily. Porosity in rocks ranges from about 50 to 0 .

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  • Density of Rocks and SoilsChemistry LibreTexts

     · Example (PageIndex 1 ) Density Calculation. Calculate the density of (a) a piece of rock whose mass is 37.42 g and which when submerged increases the water level in a graduated cylinder by 13.9 ml (b) an rock core sample which is a cylinder of mass 25.07 g radius 0.750 m and height 5.25 cm.

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  • Dry Bulk Density (DBD) of Rocks Request PDF

    The dry bulk density (DBD) is determined as dry mass of a rock (i.e. excluding natural moisture) per unit of actual in situ rock volume including porosity. Despite of an obvious importance of the

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  • Weathering Influence on Properties of Siltstones from

     · Slaking and weathering of weak rocks result in slope instability. Siltstones from flysch rock masses are highly susceptible to weathering which causes rapid changes in the geotechnical properties and durability. This study investigated siltstone samples of different weathering grades from flysch rock masses from the Istria Peninsula Croatia and determined the effects of weathering on their

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  • PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK

     · in weathered areas such as block movement or landslides. Table 2 gives a descriptive scheme for grading the degree of weathering of a rock mass. Most rock engineering works involve rocks in various levels within the weathered zone. Engineers need to know the elevations and locations of structures selecting the types of

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  • Densities of Typical Rock Types and Minerals

     · Densities of Typical Rock Types and Minerals Rock Type Range (g/cm3) Average (g/cm3) Sediments(wet) Overburden 1.92 Soil 1.22.4 1.92 Clay 1.632.6 2.21 Gravel 1.702.40 2.0 Sand 1.702.30 2.0 Sandstone 1.612.76 2.35 Shale 1.773.20 2.40 Limestone 1.932.90 2.55 Dolomite 2.282.90 2.70 Sedimentary

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  • Characterization of Weathered Soft Rock Mass by Index

     · phyllites that is fresh rock (W1) slightly weathered rock (W2) moderately weathered rock (W3) and highly weathered rock (W4). Material and Methods Two steps set the methodology stage the first one includes the identification and classification of the weathering grades using an adaptation of the

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  • Hayward Fault Rocks Porosity Density and Strength

     · Densities ranged from a low of 2.25 gm/cc (altered keratophyre) to 3.05 gm/cc (fine gabbro) with an average of 2.6 gm/cc typical of many other rocks. Porosities were generally around 1 or less with the exception of the sandstone (7.6 ) and altered keratophyre (13.5 ).

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  • Weathering potential index for rocks based on density

     · Weathering potential index for rocks based on density and porosity measurements R PRATAP SINGH VIJAY KUMAR UPADHYAY and ASOK DAS Bhagalpur College of Engineering Bhagalpur 813 210 India Highly weathered rock Completely weathered rock Residual soil No visible sign of weathering. Rock fresh crystals bright. Few discontinuities may show

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  • Weathering Indices for Assessment of Weathering Effect

     · - The weight percentage of the major oxide un der interest from whole rock analyses of fresh samples are multiplied by dry density of the respective sample. Then Amob value in Figure 1a is obtained. By means of this Amos value a parallel line (OA) was drawn.For each sample weathered to various degrees the weight percentage of the major

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  • Compaction Density Of Residual Soils And Weathered Rock

    Residual soils weathered rock and overburden quarry fill represent a significant amount of fill used in road embankments. These have a high stone content which affects both the bulk density and the accuracy of the quality tests associated with compaction control. Density is the parameter that one is most likely to have a good estimate.

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  • Strength properties of fresh and weathered rocks

    Unlike the rock density the W-D cycles had a more pronounced effect on the rock strength especially for the greywacke specimens. The data from PL tests (Fig. 7a) indicate that as the number of W -D cycles increased the point load strength index (I s50) of greywacke significantly decreased. For example in the case of fresh greywacke I

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